Paraffins exist in crude oil in a liquid state but precipitate from the crude at an equilibrium temperature and pressure change, defined as the cloud point.
Paraffin formation and deposition takes place by four mechanisms: chemical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal (MPT). The MPT alters the chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the crude as it passes through the magnetic fields. These changes have the effect of also altering the thermal (cloud point) mechanism.
The MPT reduces the kinetics of the crystallization process thereby reducing or eliminating the transformation of paraffin from a liquid to a solid state.
The surface tension reduction effect of the MPT will reduce or eliminate the mechanical adhesion of sticky paraffins to one another and the tubulars by keeping these paraffins in solution.
Crude oil, when flowing through sand or production tubing, produces electrical potential. Faraday’s law of electrolysis states, “the mass of substance deposited or liberated from a solution is directly proportional to the quantity of charge which flows through the circuit.” MPT alters the electrical potential of crude enough to change its nature and retard deposition or paraffin.
The physical characteristics of crude oil are significantly changed by the MPT. Placement or the MPT up hole close to where paraffin normally starts to form will help the crude retain the magnetic effect through the paraffin zone.
One unit installed below the deepest paraffin zone will normally yield excellent results. Due to the diversity of paraffin however, under certain conditions, the use of more than one unit may be necessary. Multiple paraffin zones or high volumes wells that may cause the magnetic energy to be spent before the crude leaves the tubing may require an additional unit.